Geometry induced phase transitions in magnetic spherical shell

Equilibrium magnetization states in spherical shells of a magnetically soft ferromagnet form two out-of-surface vortices with codirectionally magnetized vortex cores at the sphere poles: (i) a whirligig state with the in-surface magnetization oriented along parallels is typical for thick shells; (ii) a three dimensional onion state with the in-surface meridional…

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